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Leachate
Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through any permeable material. It can contain either dissolved or suspended material, or usually both. This liquid is most commonly found in association with landfills where result of rain percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the Leachate. If the landfill has no Leachate collection system, the Leachate can enter groundwater, and this can pose environmental or health problems as a result. Typically, landfill Leachate is anoxic, acidic, rich in organic acid groups, sulfate ions and with high concentrations of common metal ions especially iron. Leachate has a very distinctive smell which is not easily forgotten.

The risks from waste Leachate are due to its high organic contaminant concentrations and high ammoniacal nitrogen. Pathogenic micro-organisms and toxic substances that might be present in it are often cited as the most important, but pathogenic organism counts reduce rapidly with time in the landfill, so this only applies to the most fresh Leachate. These risks are greatly mitigated by properly designed and engineered landfill sites. For example, sites that are constructed on geologically impermeable materials or sites that use impermeable liners made of geotextiles or clay. The use of linings is now mandatory within both the United States and the European Union except where the waste is genuinely impermeable. In addition, toxic materials such as cadmium and toluene cannot be disposed of in landfills.

In older landfills, the Leachate was directed to the sewers, but this caused problems. Originally one of these was the contamination by toxic metals that passed through the sewage treatment plant and eventually entered the environment. However, with improved regulation and control whereby toxic wastes are now no longer permitted to be disposed to Municipal Solid Waste landfills in Europe, and in most developed countries the metals problem has largely been solved. Paradoxically, however, as sewage treatment works discharges are being improved throughout Europe and many other countries, the sewage treatment works operators are finding that the very high ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations in Leachate difficult to treat.

Another problem was that if the landfill contained large amounts of organic material then methane was produced, some of which dissolved in the Leachate. This could in theory be released in weakly ventilated areas in the treatment plant and all plants in the U.S. must now be assessed, and zoned where explosion risks are identified to prevent future accidents. The most important requirement is the prevention of discharge of dissolved methane from untreated Leachate when it is discharged into public sewers, and most sewerage undertakers limit the permissible discharge concentration of dissolved methane to 0.14 mg/l, or 1/10th of the lower explosive limit. This entails methane purging or stripping.

Finally, Leachate can contain high concentrations of ammonia which in theory can pose a health hazard to treatment plant workers, particularly in acidic Leachate. However, within municipal solid waste landfills this is not a problem due to the pH remaining close to neutral after the initial stage of (acidogenic) Leachate decomposition. Many sewer undertakers limit maximum ammonical nitrogen [1] concentration in their sewers to 250 mg/l to protect sewer maintenance workers, as the WHO's maximum occupational safety limit would be exceeded at above pH 9 to 10, which is often the highest permitted alkalinity of permitted sewer discharges.

Leachate can also be produced from land that was contaminated by chemicals or toxic materials used in industrial activities such as factories, mines or storage sites. Composting sites in high rainfall also produce Leachate.



Aquifers
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. The diagram below indicates typical flow directions in a cross-sectional view of a simple confined/unconfined aquifer system (two aquifers with one aquitard between them, surrounded by the bedrock aquiclude) which is in contact with a stream (typical in humid regions). The water table and unsaturated zone are also illustrated.

Saturated versus unsaturated
Groundwater can be found at nearly every point in the earth's shallow subsurface, to some degree; although aquifers do not necessarily contain fresh water. The earth's crust can be divided into two regions: the saturated zone or phreatic zone (e.g., aquifers, aquitards, etc.), where all available spaces are filled with water, and the unsaturated zone (also called the vadose zone), where there are still pockets of air that can be replaced by water. Saturated means the pressure head of the water is greater than atmospheric pressure (it has a gauge pressure > 0). The definition of the water table is surface where the pressure head is equal to atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0). Unsaturated conditions occur above the water table where the pressure head is negative (absolute pressure can never be negative, but gauge pressure can) and the water which incompletely fills the pores of the aquifer material is under suction. The water content in the unsaturated zone is held in place by surface adhesive forces and it rises above the water table (the zero gauge pressure isobar) by capillary action to saturate a small zone above the phreatic surface (the capillary fringe) at less than atmospheric pressure. This is termed tension saturation and is not the same as saturation on a water content basis. Water content in a capillary fringe decreases with increasing distance from the phreatic surface. The capillary head depends on soil pore size. In sandy soils with larger pores the head will be less than in clayey soils with very small pores. The normal capillary rise in a clayey soil is less than 1.80 m (six feet) but can range between 0.3 and 10 m (1 and 30 feet). [1]

The capillary rise of water in a small diameter tube is this same physical process. The water table is the level to which water will rise in a large diameter pipe (e.g. a well) which goes down into the aquifer and is open to the atmosphere.

Confined versus unconfined
There are two end members in the spectrum of types of aquifers; confined and unconfined (with semi-confined being in between). Unconfined aquifers are sometimes also called water table or phreatic aquifers, because their upper boundary is the water table or phreatic surface. Typically (but not always) the shallowest aquifer at a given location is unconfined, meaning it does not have a confining layer (an aquitard or aquiclude) between it and the surface. Unconfined aquifers usually receive recharge water directly from the surface, from precipitation or from a body of surface water (e.g., a river, stream, or lake) which is in hydraulic connection with it. Confined aquifers have the water table above their upper boundary (an aquitard or aquiclude), and are typically found below unconfined aquifers. The term "perched" refers to ground water accumulates above a low-permeability unit. This term is generally used to refer to a small local area of ground water that occurs at an elevation higher than a regionally-extensive aquifer. The difference between perched and unconfined aquifers is their size (perched is smaller).

If the distinction between confined and unconfined is not clear geologically (i.e., if it is not known if a clear confining layer exists, or if the geology is more complex, e.g., a fractured bedrock aquifer), the value of storativity returned from an aquifer test can be used to determine it (although aquifer tests in unconfined aquifers should be interpreted differently than confined ones). Confined aquifers have very low storativity values (much less than 0.01, and as little as 10-5), which means that the aquifer is storing water using the mechanisms of aquifer matrix expansion and the compressibility of water, which typically are both quite small quantities. Unconfined aquifers have storativities (typically then called specific yield) greater than 0.01 (1% of bulk volume); they release water from storage by the mechanism of actually draining the pores of the aquifer, releasing relatively large amounts of water (up to the drainable porosity of the aquifer material, or the minimum volumetric water content).

Aquifers versus aquitards
Aquifers are typically saturated regions of the subsurface which produce an economically feasible quantity of water to a well or spring (e.g., sand and gravel or fractured bedrock often make good aquifer materials). An aquitard is a zone within the earth that restricts the flow of groundwater from one aquifer to another. An aquitard can sometimes, if completely impermeable, be called an aquiclude or aquifuge. Aquitards comprise layers of either clay or non-porous rock with low hydraulic conductivity. Economically feasible is a relative term; for example, an aquifer that is quite adequate for local domestic use, as in a rural area, might be considered an inadequate aquitard for industrial, mining, or urban water supply.

In non-mountainous areas (or near rivers in mountainous areas), the main aquifers are typically unconsolidated alluvium. They are typically composed of mostly horizontal layers of materials deposited by water processes (rivers and streams), which in cross-section (looking at a two-dimensional slice of the aquifer) appear to be layers of alternating coarse and fine materials. Coarse materials, because of the high energy needed to move them, tend to be found nearer the source (mountain fronts or rivers), while the fine-grained material will make it farther from the source (to the flatter parts of the basin or overbank areas - sometimes called the pressure area). Since there are less fine-grained deposits near the source, this is a place where aquifers are often unconfined (sometimes called the forebay area), or in hydraulic communication with the land surface.

Misconception
A common misconception is that groundwater exists in underground rivers (e.g. caves where water flows freely underground). This is only sometimes true in eroded limestone areas known as karst topography which make up only a small percentage of Earth's area. More usual is that the pore spaces of rocks in the subsurface are simply saturated with water — like a kitchen sponge — which can be pumped out and used for agricultural, industrial or municipal uses.

Human dependence on groundwater
Most land areas on Earth have some form of aquifer underlying them, sometimes at significant depths. Fresh water aquifers, especially those with limited recharge by meteoric water, can be over-exploited and, depending on the local hydrogeology, may draw in non-potable water or saltwater (saltwater intrusion) from hydraulically connected aquifers or surface water bodies. This can be a serious problem especially in coastal areas and other areas where aquifer pumping is excessive.

Aquifers are critically important in human habitation and agriculture. Deep aquifers in arid areas have long been water sources for irrigation (see Ogallala below). Many villages and even large cities draw their water supply from wells in aquifers.

Municipal, irrigation and industrial water supplies are provided through large wells. Multiple wells for one water supply source are termed "wellfields". Wellfields may withdraw water from confined aquifers or unconfined aquifers. Using ground water from deep, confined aquifers provides more protection from surface water contamination. Some wells, termed "collector wells" are specifically designed to induced infiltration of surface (usually river) water.

Aquifers that provide sustainable fresh groundwater to urban areas and for agricultural irrigation are typically close to the ground surface (within a couple of hundred meters) and have some recharge by fresh water. This recharge is typically from rivers or meteoric water (precipitation) that percolate into the aquifer through overlying unsaturated materials.

Subsidence
In unconsolidated aquifers, groundwater is produced from pore spaces between particles of gravel, sand, and silt. If the aquifer is confined by low-permeability layers, the reduced water pressure in the sand and gravel causes slow drainage of water from the adjoining confining layers. If these confining layers are composed of compressible silt or clay, the loss of water to the aquifer reduces the water pressure in the confining layer, causing it to compress from the weight of overlying geologic materials. In severe cases, this compression can be observed on the ground surface as subsidence. Unfortunately, much of the subsidence from groundwater extraction is permanent (elastic rebound is small). Thus the subsidence is not only permanent, but the compressed aquifer has a permanently-reduced capacity to hold water.

Salt Water Intrusion
Aquifers near the coast have a lens of freshwater near the surface and denser seawater under freshwater. Seawater penetrates the aquifer diffusing in from the ocean and is more dense than freshwater. For porous (i.e. sandy) aquifers near the coast, the thickness of freshwater atop saltwater is about 40 feet for every 1 ft of freshwater head above sea level. This relationship is called the Ghyben-Herzberg equation. If too much ground water is pumped near the coast, salt-water may intrude into freshwater aquifers causing contamination of potable freshwater supplies. Many coastal aquifers, such as the Biscayne Aquifer near Miami and the New Jersey Coastal Plain aquifer, have problems with saltwater intrusion as a result of overpumping.

Examples of Aquifers
An example of a significant and sustainable carbonate aquifer is the Edwards Aquifer [2] in central Texas. This carbonate aquifer has historically been providing high-quality water for nearly 2 million people and, even today, is completely full because of tremendous recharge from a number of area streams, rivers and lakes. The primary risk to this resource is human development over the recharge areas

One of the largest aquifers in the world is the Guarani Aquifer, with 1.2 million km² of area, from central Brazil to northern Argentina.

Aquifer depletion is a problem in some areas, and is especially critical in northern Africa; see the Great Manmade River project of Libya for an example. However, new methods of groundwater management such as artificial recharge and injection of surface waters during seasonal wet periods has extended the life of many freshwater aquifers, especially in the United States.

  • The Great Artesian Basin is one of the largest groundwater aquifers in the world. It plays a large part in water supplies for remote parts of South Australia.

North America

  • Canada - Oak Ridges Moraine, north of the city of Toronto.
  • United States - The Ogallala Aquifer of the central United States is one of the world's great aquifers, but in places it is being rapidly depleted for growing municipal use, and continuing agricultural use. This huge aquifer, which underlies portions of eight states, contain primarily fossil water from the time of the last glaciation. Annual recharge, in the more arid portions of the aquifer, is estimated to total only about ten percent of annual withdrawals.
  • United States - The Mahomet Aquifer supplies water to some 800,000 people in central Illinois and contains approximately four trillion US gallons (15 km³) of water. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium [3] was formed in 1998 to study the aquifer with hopes of ensuring the water supply and reducing potential user conflicts.

 
 
     
 
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